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الأربعاء، 25 فبراير، 2015

English Grammar: PARTS OF SPEECH

PARTS OF SPEECH

Words, which are the building blocks of language, are used in eight different ways.  They have, therefore, eight different names, called PARTS OF SPEECH.  These parts of speech are: NOUN, PRONOUN, ADJECTIVE, VERB, ADVERB, PREPOSITION, CONJUNCTION, AND INTERJCTION.  Each of these parts of speech can be used in various ways, as seen below 
NOUN  
               A word that names a person, place, thing, or idea; it may be proper or common; concrete or abstract; singular or plural; compound or collective
                   Person – student, mother, Jamie, Mrs. Jones
                   Place – kitchen, classroom, Grand Canyon, Hawaii
                   Thing – surfboard, video, year, gum
                   Idea – thought, education, democracy, peace
                   Proper –names a particular person, place, or thing; capitalized
                   Common – a general name; not capitalized
                   Concrete – something you can see, hear, smell, touch, or taste
                   Abstract – names an idea, quality, or state (pride, sadness)
                   Singular – names a single person, place, thing, or idea (foot)
                   Plural – names more than one (feet)
                   Compound - made up of two or more words; it may be written as one   word (baseball),                     separate words (parking lot), or as a hyphenated word (runner-up)
                   Collective - refers to a group of people of things (audience, crowd)   
PRONOUN
          A word used in place of one or more nouns; it may stand for a person, place, thing, or  idea; the word to which it refers is its ANTECEDENT.  There are several types
                   Personal               I, me, you
                                                he, him, she, her, it
                                                we, us, they, them 
                   Possessive           my, mine, your, yours
                                                his, her, its
                                                our, ours, their, theirs 
                   Indefinite             anybody, somebody
                                                each, either, everything
                                                none, some, both, few, etc. 
                   Interrogative                who, whom
                                                what, which, whose 
                   Demonstrative              this, that, these, those 
                   Reflexive/Intensive      myself, yourself, himself, herself
                                                itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves  
                   NOTE: A reflexive pronoun reflects action back upon the subject and adds information to               the sentence; an intensive pronoun adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun in the same                         sentence: ie. Donna prepared herself for the party; Donna herself prepared for the party.       
VERB
                   A word that expresses action, describes a state of being, or otherwise helps to make a statement; there are several types: 
                   Action Verbs express mental or physical action: 
                   EX:   The dog ran through the waves and chased the Frisbee.
                             She though hard but couldn’t remember the answer. 
                   Linking Verbs do not show action, but connect the subject with a word in the predicate;   the most common linking verb is “be” and its many forms: 
                             am, is, are, was, were
                             has been, have been, had been, will be, shall be
                             may be, would have been, can be, should be 
                   Other common forms are: 
                             taste, feel, smell, sound, look, appear
                             become, seem, grow, remain, and stay 
                   EX:   I am a teacher.
                             He has been sick.
                             The cakes were delicious.
                             The flowers smelled good.
                             (but NOT, “She smelled the flowers”). 
                   Helping Verbs help the main verb to express action or make a statement; together they form verb phrases; the most common helping verbs are shown below:
                             is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been
                             has, have, had, do, does, did, shall, will,
                             should, would, may, might must, can, could 
                   EX:   We have been enjoying our vacation.
                             He will have been running for an hour. 
ADJECTIVE      A word that modifies a noun or pronoun; they are describing words which answer the                     following questions: 
                   What kind?                             happy children; sunny day
                   Which one or ones?                any book; seventh grade
                   How many or how much?      five dollars; full tank

                   EX:   The cheerful young girl had numerous friends.
                             The cantankerous old man suffered through many lonely days.

                   NOTE: The most commonly used adjectives – a, an, the – are called  ARTICLES.  
ADVERB   A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; like adjectives, they also                        answer certain questions.  Some of the most common forms are listed below: 
                   Where?                                   here, there, away, up
                   When?                                    now, then, later, soon
                   How?                                      clearly, easily, quietly, slowly
                   How often?                            never, always, often, seldom
                   To what extent?                    very, too, almost, so, really 
                   EX:   The sun is shining brightly in the sky today.
                             Yesterday the student completed him homework very carefully. 
                   NOTE: Both adjectives and adverbs may appear BEFORE or AFTER the word (or words) they modify; sometimes an adverb may appear in the middle of a verb phrase. 
                   EX:   The friendly student pointed us in the right direction.
                             The student, who was friendly and intelligent, pointed us in the right direction.

                             The class often complains about homework.
                             The class complains often about homework.

                             Suddenly, the door opened.
                             The door opened suddenly. 
                             He did not know the answer.
                             Movie stars are often seen in Hollywood.
PREPOSITION 
          A word that shows the relation of a word or pronoun to some other word in the   sentence; below are some of the most common prepositions:

                             around                  behind                  for              throughout at
                             about          below                   in                to                before
                             above                   beneath                into             toward                  except
                             across                   beside                  like             under          for
                             after            between               of                during         since
                             against                 beyond                 off              until            through
                             along          by               on               up               within
                             among                  down          over            with            without               
                             EX:   The skater rolled down the hill and crashed into the bushes.
                                      She walked through the store on her way to the parking lot.
                                      She bought a bouquet of flowers for her mom. 
                             NOTE: Prepositions never stand alone in a sentence; they are always used with a                            noun or       pronoun called the OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION 
(ie. under the  boardwalk; during the last week; in the kitchen) 
                             ALSO NOTE: Sentences should not end with a preposition. 
                             EX:   He realized he had nothing to start with. (incorrect)
                                      He realized he had nothing with which to start. (correct)
                                       The Alaskan wilderness is a difficult place to survive in. (incorrect)
                                      The Alaskan wilderness is a difficult place in which to survive.(correct)  
CONJUNCTION
          A word that joins words or groups of words; they are also used to join compound sentences.  The most common conjunctions can be remembered with the word FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) 
                             EX:   Jeff and Robert; sun or rain; fun but expensive; tired yet happy
                                      Philip is listening, but Kenny is talking.
                                      She plays the guitar, and her brother plays the piano.  
INTERJECTION
          A word that expresses strong emotion; set apart by a comma or exclamation point; it has no grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence 
                             EX:   Ouch!  That hurts.
                                      Wow!  What a beautiful day!
                                      Oh no, I broke a nail.

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