المتابعون

الخميس، 10 يونيو، 2010

كلية الإقتصاد:لغة إنجليزية : الرابع

PASSAGE 1)

MARKETING

Most of the Arab countries have new industries. They need markets for their own products. The Arabs should create an Arab common market to protect their new industries (against outside competition. If they succeed in doing so, their new industries will flourish.
The term marketing includes all activities we need to help goods to flow from producers to consumers. When the production stage is completed, goods are sold and delivered to a consumer who uses them, or to wholesaler who, in his turn, sells and delivers them to a retailer. The retailer cuts up big lots into smaller lots suitable for his customers. The wholesalers and retailers who help goods to go from one stage to another are called middlemen.
Markets are places where people meat to buy or sell. They are always held in an open place and on certain days. A market is usually divided into different parts. Each part displays a certain article. There are more than one market in a town. The citizen can buy his needs at any time. Markets help commerce very much. There are many types of markets. But they all help man to realize his welfare and comfort.
Most large cities have markets for vegetables and fruits, such as the Central Market in Khartoum. Supplies must be received frequently, sometimes daily if they are to be fresh and in good condition. Such markets are necessary because they enable the buyer to see and choose the goods he wants. Moreover retailers can always find sellers in these markets. Without these markets they would have to spend more time traveling from one place to another in search of what they want.




Vocabulary:

word
meaning
word
meaning
industries
صناعات
competition
منافسة
marketing
تسويق
Producer
منتج
Common market
سوق مشتركة
consumer
مستهلك
delivered
ترسل
Wholesaler
تاجر جملة
retailer
تاجر قطاعي
Customer
زبون
middlemen
وسطاء
Citizen
مواطن
welfare
رفاهية
Central market
سوق مركزي

Questions:

- What do most Arab countries have?
- What does the term marketing mean?
- Why do they need markets?
- Why should Arab countries create a common market?
- What is difference between a wholesaler and a retailer?
What do we call people who help goods to go from one stage to another?
- What do we call places where people meat to buy or sell?
- Why are markets important?
- Vegetable and fruit markets are necessary. Why?


PASSAGE (2)

COMPETITION

Competition is the natural desire to surpass our rivals. It is the prevailing spirit in sports and commerce. Matches are arranged between various clubs and accurate tables showing results are kept.
Competition leads the different producers to improve their products. Competition also results in a reduction of prices and producing the best article.
The public is well aware of such a fact and judges for the best. Therefore, competition may ruin the poor firms and the bad producers. Some merchants who are fond of competition may give facilities or lottery tickets with money prices.

Vocabulary:

word
meaning
`word
meaning
competition
منافسة
Reduction of prices
تخفيض الأسعار
Natural desire
رغبة طبيعية
article
سلعة
surpass
تغلب على
Pervading spirit
الروح السائدة
rivals
منافسين
The public
الجمهور
Ruin
يجعله يخسر
Judge for the best
الحكم للأفضل
firms
شركات
facilities
تسهيل
merchants
تجار
Lottery tickets
تذاكر يا نصيب

Questions:

- What is competition?
- What are the advantages of competition?
- Who judges for the best?
- What may happen for poor companies as a result of competition?
- Why do some merchants give lottery tickets?














WRITING:

Writing a C.V. in order to apply for a job:

The C.V. contains the following parts:

1. Personal Information:

- Name:
- Date of birth: ……………………………………………..
- Place of birth: …………………………………………….
- Occupation: ………………………………………………
- Marital status: …………………………………………….
- Languages: ………………………………………………..

2. Education:

- Basic education: ………………………………………….
- Secondary education: ……………………………………..

3. Qualifications:

(BA, . Bsc., Diploma, Ph.D. ……etc)
University of …………… , date……..

4. Training courses:

- Training courses in ………………………
From: …./ …./….. to …../ ……/ ……. (date).
At ………… ( university, college, institute, training centre, …etc.).






5. Experiences:

- I have worked at …………. (bank, company, organization, institution, ……etc. ) as a……… ( manager, accountant, supervisor, ……etc. ) from …../ …../ … to ../ …. /… (date).
6. Address:

- Postal address:
Name
P. O. Box …………
……………….
………………..
Dongola, Sudan.

- Phone Numbers:
Tel: …………………………….
Mobile: ………………………..

- E. Mail: ……………..@..............

7. References:

- Enclosures (certificates, documents, .etc.)
- Recommendations: (From at least three known persons that can be referred to).












مصطلحات : :TERMS

المقابل بالعربية
Term
المقابل بالعربية
Term
قائمة أسعار
Price list
بائع
Sales man
رهن
mortgage
صراف
cashier
توكيل
proxy
عميل
Customer
تضحم مالي
inflation
عملة قابلة للتحويل
Convertible currency
تفاذ البضاعة
Out of stock
تاجر جملة
Wholesaler
يرفع الثمن (السعر)
outbid
تاجر قطاعي
retailer
طلب وظيفة
application
مسك الدفاتر
Book keeping
مؤهل
qualification
وظيفة شاغرة
vacancy
شهادة
Certificate
فرصة وظيفة
Job opportunity
مستند
document
إعلان عن وظيفة
Job announcement
خبرة
experience
إعلان (دعاية)
advertisement
لقب/ عنوان كتاب- مقال
title
عنوان بريدي
address
مرفقات
enclosures
توصية
recommendation
بريد إليكنروني
ُE. Mail
منظمة
organization

GRAMMAR:
Prepositions:
Space
Prepositions are used to indicate position (in time or space) of one thing with respect to another:
I put the book on the table.
She arrived before the others.
He came toward me.
There are many prepositions. Here is a partial list, with examples:
· to -- He gave the book to his friend.
· at -- They arrived at his house at 5 o'clock.
· of -- It was the third day of the month.
· from -- That young women comes from Thailand.
· on -- She put the plate on the table.
· under -- The cat crawled under the bed.
· over -- The boy threw the rock over the tree.
· before -- (time) She arrived before the movie started.
· after -- He called his mother after he finished shopping.
· in front of -- His mother parked her car in front of his apartment.
· behind -- The dog ran behind the house.
· for -- He went to the store for more milk.
· toward -- The criminal walked toward him with a gun.
· against -- Everyone was against that idea.
· around -- The athletes ran around the track six times.
· close to -- He placed the food close to the squirrel.
· far from -- He placed the food far from the lion.
· next to -- He was hot, so he sat down next to the air
Usage of prepositions
The use of prepositions is one of the most complex aspects of English, and it is impossible to cover all cases. Some general guidelines, however, may be helpful.
Geography
Movement toward a town, country, state, or continent is generally expressed by the preposition "to"; presence in a city, state, etc. is expressed by "in"; movement away from a city, state, etc., is expressed by "from" (if the verb requires a pronoun):
When are you going to Canada.
He went to Asia last year.
I spent three years in London.
She was born in Normandy.
He comes from Mexico.


Transportation
As a general rule, the preposition "by" is used to describe how one has traveled. The prepositions "in" and "on" describe one's presence inside a vehicle. In the case of small vehicles (a car, a helicopter...), the preposition "in" is required:
I came by bike.
Traveling by plane is my favorite.
I was already (in) the train when he arrived.
She is waiting for me in the car.
Time
To designate an hour the preposition "at" is used:
Let's meet at six o'clock.
They arrived at 4:45.
For dates and days of the week, one uses "on":
His birthday is on Monday.
It happened on March 3, 1997.
For months one uses "in":
My birthday is in September.
We will begin work in August.
To express duration, the preposition "for" is used; "in" can be used to express the time it will take to complete a task:
I am going away for a few days.
He worked with them for three years.
I can read that book in a day.
Connectives:

They are used to join words, phrases, clauses and sentences:
- and:
I asked Ahmed to give me the pen and the book.
I have eaten a sandwich and drunk orange juice.
- but:
He can speak English but I don't know English.
I don't know him well but I will tell him.
- or:
You can go by bus or you can walk.
Do you like tea or coffee?
- both…… and:
Both Ali and are friends.
He speaks both English and Arabic.
- either ……..or:
Either Ali or Ahmed speaks English well.
I like either tea or coffee.
- neither……..nor:
He likes neither tea nor coffee.
He is neither an American nor French.
- not only…….,but also:
He is not only a rich man, but also he is a generous man.
Not only is he a rich man, but also he is a generous man.
However + adjective/adverb:
However beautiful she is, she has not got married yet.
However hard the exam is, Ali has got the full mark.
- Although:
Although the car was small, they all managed to get in.
Although he was ill, he came to attend the lecture.
- in spite of:
In spite of illness, he came to attend the lecture.
In spite of feeling tired, we decided to go out.
-while:
While I was walking, I met Ali.
- after:
After I had finished my work, I went to bed.

Grammar Exercises:

1. Either he or I ………….. on the right side.
(A) am (B) is (C) he (D) are
2……………. Of them are thieves.
(A) Neither (B) either (C) both (D) each
3. are you going to stay ………………. Leave.
(A) or (B) either (C) and
4………………..I Played well , I lost the game
(A) and (B) but (C) or (D)although
5. ………… my opinion, it is too expensive.
(A) from (B) in ( C) on (D) at
6. I found a strange man …………. My friends
(A) in (b) on (c) among (D) between
7. I was there …………………. 1998 .
(A) since (B) for (C) to (A) on
8. The book is …………… the cupboard.
(A) In (B) over C) at (D) to
9. The teacher sees ………………. as good students.
(A) we (B) our (C) us (D) ourselves
10. the car in blue is ………………….
(A) him (B) whose (C) my (D) mine
11. We usually tip the people who serve ……………
(A) we (B) our (C) us (D) ourselves
12. Any thing ……………….. I can do?
(A) other (B) next (C) else (D) another
13. While I ………………… ,I had a call.
(A) eat (B) ate (C) am eating (D) was eating
14. Ali arrived two hours……………
(A) yet (B) for (C) since (D) ago
15. People ………………drink pure water
(A) must (B) might (C) can (D) may
16. If comes , I ……..him
(A) see (B) saw (C) will see ( D) would see
17. I don't……….. bread.
(A) any (B) some (C) many (D) few
18. Ali …………lives in Dongola, is a teacher.
(A) whom (B) whose (C) who (D) he
19. The plane took ……………… at 10 yesterday.
(A) of (B) by (C) off (D) for
20. I like tea …….. coffee (A) either (B) nor (C) or (D) but

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